A Brief History of Bird Rookery Swamp

by Nan Mattingly

Hike the Loop with CREW. Photo by Bill Zaino

As you set out to enjoy the riches of Bird Rookery Swamp (BRS for short) think of the people who have used this land before you.  Some highlights:

From approximately 500 BC to 1600 AD, the fierce Calusa tribe traversed this huge swamp from their home base on the southwest Florida coast (in the vicinity of what is now Ft. Myers Beach) to their hunting and fishing camps at Lake Trafford in Immokalee. Waterways (rivers, streams, even sheet flow) were so plentiful that the Calusa traveled in canoes hollowed out from giant bald cypress trees harvested in Bird Rookery Swamp. They made use of what they found at Bird Rookery Swamp for their daily living needs; they ate the hearts of sabal palms and used the fronds to weave floor mats and to roof their dwellings. They harvested the fruit of cocoplums and pond apple trees, they fished the waters, and they used plants for medicinal purposes.  

Dugout Canoe found at Lake Trafford. Photo by Andrew West

The bird plume trade drew feather hunters to Bird Rookery Swamp from the late 1800s to the early 1900s at which time state and federal laws were enacted to protect the birds. At the height of the trade, a pound of bird plumes was more valuable than a pound of gold, and the white ibis (known as the Chokoloskee Chicken) was considered a delicacy. Today Bird Rookery Swamp provides sanctuary for at least 45 kinds of birds, including some protected and threatened species.

Rosette Spoonbill

The timber trade brought the next economic exploitation of Bird Rookery Swamp. In 1934, cypress wood sold for $60 to $100 per 1,000 board feet. Over 40 miles of elevated trails (called trams) were constructed to run a narrow-gauge train to extract harvested trees, which were sent to a mill in central Florida. Those trees, generally around 130 feet tall and 25 feet in girth, were 500 to 600 years old. Cypress was a hard, durable wood resistant to water and bugs. Cypress trees harvested at Bird Rookery Swamp were used to build PT boats during World War II, to rebuild war-torn Europe and to provide wood for homes sold through the Sears catalog. The last surviving steam engine used on the Bird Rookery Swamp trams is on display at the Collier County Museum. A court order in 1957 ended logging at Bird Rookery Swamp.

Farmers and ranchers have used Bird Rookery Swamp lands since the late 1800s to grow orange trees and to plant field crops such as tomatoes, melons and potatoes. If you look carefully into the Bird Rookery Swamp forest, you’ll see a few derelict barbed wire fences, relics of the cattle ranching that ended in the mid-1970s.

Early Settlers in CREW

Europeans & Early American Settlers, the history of land use and its effect on our water resources and wildlife in CREW
Lakes of Flint Pen Strand

Water management in Florida today has evolved from the lessons of the past, as well as from changing philosophies about natural resources and the environment. Early Native Americans in Florida altered the land by building settlements, cultivating fields, building mounds, establishing transportation routes, and digging canals and fish ponds. European explorers and settlers arrived in the 1500s, but much of Florida, particularly the central and southern regions, remained relatively undeveloped until the last decades of the 19th century. Significant increases in population and tourism were contemporaneous with new development and developers directly and indirectly caused significant changes to the natural landscape and resources of the state (Purdum et al.).

Europeans & early American settlers:

The history of Florida’s human settlement for most of the past 14,000 years has been shaped by water. When Spanish explorers arrived in Florida in the 1500s, an estimated 350,000 Native Americans were living throughout the state almost exclusively near water filled regions (Bureau of Archaeological Research). At the time of the European contact in the late 16th century, the Spaniards identified the people of Southwest Florida as the Calusa. The Calusa occupied the coastal zone, however their political influence and trade network extended inland to the Lake Okeechobee basin.

Settlement of Lee County really began in the years following the Civil War. Government land surveys seeking out areas for settlement were also completed during this period, although CREW area surveys were left incomplete due to the “impracticable” nature of the swamp. Ultimately, even though people had lived in Florida for thousands of years prior to 1900, their overall impact had been minimal.

Lakes of Flint Pen Strand where majority of research was conducted. Photo by John Lane

Historical & archaeological research at CREW:

Archaeological research on the CREW lands, which includes approximately 60,000 acres, have uncovered no prehistoric or historic artifacts (Halperin et al.). However, archaeologically significant sites were identified adjacent to the CREW lands near Lake Trafford and several potential sites with historical resources were identified within the CREW project. Even though archaeological research uncovered no diagnostic artifacts and given the limited excavation done, it is reasonable to assume CREW would have been used for hunting and gathering activity by prehistoric peoples. Feel free to contact the CREW Trust or the Bureau of Archaeological Research if you discover a possible historical/archaeological site.

The early 1940s aerial photographs show limited cultural activity within the CREW project and by the 1970s, only a partial ditch system was in place. The Flint Pen Strand canals were more recently constructed, as evidenced by the dirt and rubble leftover from excavation. Some time after 1970, 12 to 15 homesteads were established in the slightly higher eastern part of the CREW project. The sites appear to have been selected based on slight elevations and access via the dirt trails. Almost nothing remains of these homesteads except abandoned power poles and a thin scatter of debris (Halperin et al.). 

In 2010, the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) began steps to restore hydrologic functions within the CREW Flint Pen Strand area (Blog: History of  Flint Pen Strand: Part Two), just another example of Floridians actively seeking ways to preserve, protect and restore water resources in more recent years.

Environmental choices & change:

Since 1900, Florida has seen substantial changes in land and water use. General consensus viewed Florida as having too much water and as a result, many Floridians were focused on drainage, flood control and navigation (Purdum et al.). Historically, water resources were seen primarily for human use and therefore were controlled and modified to suit our needs. Now, the value and sustainability of our finite water resources are clear. Land managers (SFWMD) today are concerned with water quality protection, water supply and ensuring natural places like the CREW watershed are under protection and preserved for future generations (Purdum et al.). 


Halperin, Christina, et al. “Cultural Resources Survey of the Corkscrew Marsh Tract of the Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed, Collier County, Florida.” C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey, vol. Bureau of Archaeological Research, no. June, 2002, p. 42.

Purdum, Elizabeth D., et al. “Florida Waters.” A Water Resources Manual from Florida’s Water Management Districts, vol. Florida Water Management District, no. 1, 2002, p. 120.

History of Flint Pen Strand: Part Three

Restoration of the Wetlands

By Nan Mattingly, CREW Trust Volunteer

Dwarf Cypress trees on the Yellow Trail North

So how do you restore a wetland? First, you study the proposed land to see if it is still functioning as a wetland. If it’s not, you remove structures (houses, roads, bridges, berms) built on the land that interfere with the natural flow of water. You also must remove a lot of debris like fences, toilets, tires, appliances, and boats just to name a few. The South Florida Water Management District, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and the CREW Trust have put thousands of hours into cleaning up CREW Flint Pen Strand (FPS).

photo taken during SFWMD work in 2000

To prepare and carry out an effective restoration, you need to know the history of the land. Are there any irreversible changes in the wetlands? You must figure out how to go around them or work with them to achieve your goal of a functioning wetland. You should also consider the causes of the degradation of a wetland and address those. There is no use restoring the wetland if it’s going to revert to its malfunctioning state.

Evidence of homestead sites still remain

You also must think ahead. Are there any plans by local, state, or federal government or private landowners that would affect your wetland? Not only do you have to study the wetland itself to figure out how to repair it, but you also must consider the surrounding area and what impact the restoration may have on neighboring property.

Pine forests intermix with wetlands throughout Flint Pen Strand

Then decide what your objectives are for the newly restored wetland. At FPS, the goals were to restore some of the original pathways for flowing water; restore the ecosystem because native trees and plants naturally help slow the water, giving it more time to soak into the aquifer; provide natural flood protection; and identify and protect habitat that is crucial for the wildlife that live there. Florida panthers and have been spotted at FPS and because they need thousands of acres to roam, I’m sure they appreciate the forests and saw palmetto habitats that support their primary food source, white-tailed deer, at FPS.

White-tailed deer roaming the marshes of south Flint Pen Strand

Finally, you monitor the success of your restoration project and maintain for the long term.

Restoring a wetland is a complex process and the SFWMD continues to work hard at FPS. Part of the process at FPS has been the removal of non-native and invasive species. If you hike the red trail and come across a forest of spooky-looking trees, many of them lying on the ground, you’ll see the results of killing hundreds of invasive melaleuca trees. With their papery white bark, the dead melaleucas look like a forest of ghosts. In addition, CREW volunteers have assisted with the removal of invasive plants such as caesar weed and earleaf acacia (a never-ending job). Consistent stewardship can only succeed with collaboration and community support. The ongoing long-term success of the CREW project is a result of many hands-on deck, especially from people like you. The support you give through membership and donations secures the future of this project and others for generations to come.

CREW Trust and FGCU Service Learning partnership in action

History of Flint Pen Strand: Part One

photo by Michael Lund

Flint Pen Strand becomes part of the CREW Project

Volunteer Perspective Series

By Nan Mattingly

Have you hiked the trails of CREW Flint Pen Strand (FPS) yet? Seen a pair of ospreys fly overhead and heard their distinctive call? Enjoyed the serenity of walking alongside the Kehl Canal on the red trail? Watched the antics of shorebirds along the lakes on the eastern side? Identified any of the colorful wildflowers that grow throughout the 14,000-acre property?

If so, you and many hikers, equestrians, bicyclists, hunters, photographers, dog walkers and nature lovers owe a big thanks to the people, organizations and local and state governments who cooperated to acquire the land, restore its natural ability to collect and purify water to replenish the aquifers and develop the trails that we now enjoy.

To encourage you and your family to discover the beauty of FPS, we’ve written a series of blogs to tell you a little about the background of the establishment of FPS as part of the Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed (CREW) Project, the historical use of the land and the restoration of its wetlands.

Dwarf Cypress trees on the Yellow Trail North at Flint Pen Strand

The area now known as CREW Flint Pen Strand was, in the late twentieth century, a flat and flood-prone area. At that time, the land was in the beginning stages of development for single-family homes on five- to ten-acre plots. A small part of the land was already inhabited and was being used for pasture, row crops and other agricultural activities, and a mobile home park was situated within its boundaries.

But local officials, environmentalists and residents recognized that development was affecting surface water storage and the natural flow of water from the Lake Trafford area through Lee and Collier County and into the Imperial and Cocohatchee Rivers. Bonita Springs was experiencing increased flooding and contamination of surface and ground waters. After a great deal of tangling with red tape, many community hearings and various assessments, it was decided that it was critical to halt development and restore the ecosystem of the land to improve water quality and supply, reduce the threat of flooding and improve habitat for protected species and other wildlife.

Flint Pen Strand during the rainy season

Water quality testing at that time had revealed the undesirable effects of agricultural and residential use of the land. These activities added pollutants to the water and decreased the time that water could linger on the land, reducing the amount of water that seeped into the aquifer. This finding made the restoration project more urgent. 

An environmental assessment performed, as a part of the larger project by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1999, found that the restoration of FPS wetlands would reclaim habitat needed by several species, including wood storks, an endangered species at that time (now classified as threatened). Wood storks have extremely specific foraging requirements, and FPS promised to provide their essential needs for nesting and feeding. Consideration was also given to the Florida panther, its need for space to roam, and the numerous other species protected within their range, as well as the Florida black bear and the Big Cypress fox squirrel. The project also would aim to remove much of the exotic vegetation that had invaded the land, primarily melaleuca trees and Brazilian pepper bushes.   

Woodstorks and numerous other wading birds at Flint Pen Strand, November of 2019

In short, restoration of FPS promised considerable benefits for wildlife, vegetation and people.

If you look at a map of the CREW Project as it now exists, you’ll see that FPS is a key part of the project, adjoining CREW Bird Rookery Swamp and buffering Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. FPS comprises a large part of the 60,000-acre CREW Project. More importantly, FPS has become a key part of the protection of the 3-aquifers underlying the CREW Project – the aquifers that provide much of the drinking and general use water for southern Lee County and northern Collier County. The ongoing restoration of the wetlands and the landscape of FPS is now transforming this environmentally valuable property into a place that everyone can enjoy – a place that allows birds and many species to call it home and that will help keep us all supplied with drinking water.     

And if you want to see some evidence of whether or not this ambitious restoration project has achieved any of its goals, check out the weekly volunteer observation reports by a CREW Trust volunteer who records the type and number of species he encounters in his lengthy trail walks. Those observations are posted on the CREW Land & Water Trust Facebook page (@CREWTrust). Additionally, if you walk the Red Trail, you’ll find an area that some call the melaleuca graveyard. A lot of work by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has gone into the effort to kill those invasive trees that threaten native species. That work continues.  Keep an eye out for the next post in this series – it may surprise you, to learn who the earliest users of FPS lands and resources were and how they traveled to get there.

Partner Spotlight

The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD)

SFWMD Prescribed Fire at CREW Cypress Dome Trail

You may already know the general story of the CREW Project. In 1989, a conservation minded group of go-getters banded together to protect the land that makes up the CREW Project today. What you may not know is how the land was chosen and how the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) emerged as the primary land owner and land manager of the CREW Project’s 60,000 acres.

In the 1980s, after several years of drought caused wells to go dry, the Lee County Board of County Commissioners applied to the state Save Our Rivers Program land acquisition program (later becoming the Conservation and Recreational Lands Program (CARL) and now known as Florida Forever), asking the state to purchase Flint Pen Strand for a water recharge area to ensure a better water supply for southern Lee County. 

At the same time, National Audubon Society’s Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary and the Conservancy of Southwest Florida also asked the state to purchase Bird Rookery Swamp to protect the southern and western edges of the Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. 

The state looked at both applications and noticed that the two parcels of land were near each other. They studied the area further, discovered there was an entire undisturbed watershed system and determined that the whole system needed to be protected.

Parcel by parcel, the National Audubon Society, Lee and Collier counties, and the state began acquiring parcels within the watershed. The state turned over land management duties to the SFWMD after acquisition. The SFWMD manages their lands to support continued or improved water flow for the benefit of Lee and Collier County citizens.

It is truly a cooperative effort and the key to our success has been partners like the SFWMD. The CREW Trust thanks you!

Bears are more active in the fall

Originally posted by the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission sent this bulletin on 09/09/2019 12:47 PM EDT

Photos: https://www.flickr.com/gp/myfwcmedia/FA6v41

B-roll video: https://vimeo.com/125067754

Suggested Tweet: In fall #Florida #bears are more active. @MyFWC reminds people to be BearWise https://content.govdelivery.com/accounts/FLFFWCC/bulletins/25e18bb   


Bears are more active in the fall

The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) is reminding people to help prevent conflicts with bears by securing garbage and other items that might attract these animals.

In the fall, Florida black bears begin preparing for the winter by consuming extra calories to pack on fat. During this time, they will eat anything that’s convenient and feeding on garbage provides more calories and less effort than foraging in the woods.

By securing your trash and other food attractants, you can help keep both people and bears safe.

To keep bears wild and away from your home, follow these simple tips:

  • Secure household garbage in a sturdy shed, garage or a wildlife-resistant container.
  • Put household garbage out on the morning of pickup rather than the night before.
  • Secure commercial garbage in bear-resistant dumpsters.
  • Protect gardens, bee yards, compost and livestock with electric fencing.
  • Encourage your homeowner’s association or local government to institute ordinances to require trash be secured from bears.
  • Feed pets indoors or bring the dishes in after feeding.
  • Clean grills and store them in a secure place.
  • Pick ripe fruit from trees and remove fallen fruit from the ground.
  • Remove wildlife and bird feeders or make them bear-resistant. See the new “Bears and Bird Feeders” video in the in the “Brochures and Videos” section at com/Bear.

It is illegal in Florida to intentionally feed bears or leave out food or garbage that will attract bears and cause human-bear conflicts. If you see or suspect someone is feeding or attracting bears, please call the FWC’s Wildlife Alert Hotline at 888-404-FWCC (3922).

You also can help people and bears stay safe by remembering to watch for bears while driving. This time of year, bears are traveling across more roads in search of food, which results in more vehicle-bear collisions. The FWC advises drivers to be aware of their surroundings as they drive in bear country, especially around dusk and dawn, and when there is forest on both sides of the road. The FWC works with Florida Department of Transportation to post bear crossing signs in areas that receive particularly high levels of vehicle-bear collisions and plan locations for wildlife underpasses to allow bears and other animals to cross safely under roadways. To learn more about how to keep people and bears safe on Florida roadways, see the “Vehicle Collisions with Bears” video at the “Brochures and Videos” section of MyFWC.com/Bear.

Go to MyFWC.com/Bear to learn more about living in bear country

CREW and You, part 3: WHEN

This is part 3 of a 6-part series on the Who, What, When, Where, Why and How of the CREW Land & Water Trust.

CREW Marsh Trails observation tower, overlooking the 5,000-acre sawgrass marsh

This year the CREW Land & Water Trust is celebrating it’s 30th anniversary. The “when” of our story started 30 years ago and we’ve been working hard ever since to preserve the water, land and wildlife within the 60,000-acre CREW Project.

We are proud of our history and our role in the CREW Project and encourage you to read about it in full on our HISTORY page.

It’s pretty difficult to condense all of our history into one infograph, especially considering the many names that have written this history. From founder Joel Kuperburg and our first executive director, Ellen Lindblad, to our longest-serving volunteer, Dr. David Cooper, our history includes volunteers, members, friends, land managers, biologists, students, professors, residents and visitors. We are thankful for everyone who has had a hand in the success of our nonprofit and look forward to working with you all in the years to come to preserve our watershed and its most important natural resource – water.

Our season review: a letter from the Executive Director

Flint Pen Strand – photo by Klaus Harvey

As our weather turns warmer and rainy season is on the horizon, I find myself reflecting on this past season.

This year the CREW Trust celebrates its 30th anniversary. So much has been accomplished in that time frame, with much more yet to be completed. Of the 60,000-acres within the borders of the watershed, almost 55,000-acres within the Corkscrew Regoinal Ecosystem Watershed (CREW) have been acquired. We continue to pursue our mission of preserving and protecting water, our most valuable natural resource, through working with our partners, specifically Lee County’s Conservation 20/20 program and Collier County’s Conservation Collier.

Education is a key component of ensuring that generations today and those that follow will connect with the land and the wildlife within the CREW Project borders and understand the value of the watershed. We are thankful for the visitors, residents, schools and CREW Trust members who participated in this season’s programs and visited the four trail systems.

This season saw the opening of the fourth and final CREW Project trail system – Flint Pen Strand. Our volunteers have worked for several years to create and mark the first two trails and continue to work on additional trails. Our Board of Trustees have been key players in this process through their work behind the scenes to assist the CREW Trust and our partners in making this exceptional area open to the public.

I have spent time over the last few weeks exploring the yellow loop in Flint Pen Strand. As I stood amidst the dwarf cypress and blooming bladderwort north of Kehl Canal, I thought of my dear friend Jim Goodwin and the hours he put into making Flint Pen Strand a reality. There is no other place in CREW like it, and I’m thankful to our volunteers, members, Board of Trustees and friends who have helped open this fourth trail system so we can all share in the beauty of the watershed.

Summer is our time to plan for next season, and I look forward to seeing you on the trails and thank you for continuing to support the CREW Trust and share in the remarkable beauty that is the CREW Project.

Brenda Brooks

Executive Director

CREW Land & Water Trust

CREW Trust Executive Director Brenda Brooks

CREW and You, part 2: WHAT

This is part 2 of a 6-part series on the Who, What, When, Where, Why and Hows of CREW and the CREW Trust.

CREW Marsh Trails observation tower, overlooking the 5,000-acre sawgrass marsh

In our last blog post, we established WHO we are (CREW Trust), and WHO is involved in the CREW Project. Today, let’s explore the whats – WHAT is CREW, and WHAT does the CREW Trust do?


CREW stands for Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed, a 60,000-acre watershed that spans Lee and Collier counties.

The land is preserved for our most important natural resource: water.

What does the watershed do?

During rainy season, if you followed one drop of rain water, it would fall in the northern part of the watershed – the CREW Marsh Trails. From there, it would move slowly over the land and into seasonal marshes or through the 5,000-acre sawgrass marsh that is the heart of the CREW Project.

The sawgrass helps filter the water, which then continues to slowly move either west towards Flint Pen Strand and into the Kehl Canal (then the Imperial River and finally Gulf of Mexico) or south to Bird Rookery Swamp and into the Cocohatchee River and then the Gulf of Mexico.

But we do not want all of that water to leave the watershed. The majority of that water needs to sit on the land, seep through the roots of the plants and the sandy soil, then through the limestone and into our aquifer.

We rely on our aquifer to provide us with all of the water we use in SWFL – from cooking and drinking to taking showers and flushing toilets. We do not have glacier melt or springs or reservoirs and rely solely on the aquifer. Large green spaces are need for aquifer recharging, and that is the main function of the Corkscrew Regional Ecocystem Watershed (CREW).

Because the land is preserved for water, it is also a home for wildlife, including some critical and endangered plant and animal species. The ecosystems include seasonal marshes, pine flatwoods, oak hammocks, popash sloughs, cypress domes, cypress swamps, hydric pine and more. Animals that can be found throughout CREW include Florida black bears, Florida panthers, coral snakes, alligators, grasshopper sparrows, roseate spoonbills, swallow-tailed kites, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, bobcats, lubber grasshoppers, zebra longwing butterflies and so many more. Due to the many ecosystems within CREW and the variety of wildlife that live within the 60,000-acre border, the second function of CREW is as a home for Southwest Florida flora and fauna.

What does the CREW Trust do?

The CREW Land & Water Trust is a private, non-profit conservation organization dedicated to the preservation and stewardship of the water resources and natural communities in and around the Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed (CREW).

We do this through assisting with funding and land acquisition within the 60,000-acre CREW project border.

As part of our commitment to the preservation and stewardship of CREW, we provide environmental education programs for students of all ages on the four CREW Project trails (CREW Marsh Trails, Cypress Dome Trails, Flint Pen Strand Trails and Bird Rookery Swamp Trails).

We believe that, if we teach people about the watershed and the wildlife within its borders, we can help make connections that will ensure that future generations will continue to care not just about preserving CREW but care about preserving more watersheds nationally and globally.

CREW and YOU, part 1: WHO

This is part 1 of a 6-part series on the Who, What, When, Where, Why and Hows of CREW and the CREW Trust.

When we first meet people, whether it’s visitors, new members, new volunteers or residents, introducing ourselves (explaining who we are) can be confusing.

It’s not an easy answer.

For example, when you introduce yourself, you say “Hi, my name is Blankity Blank, and I’m a rockstar astrophysicist who enjoys entomology.”

(Also, if that is you, let’s be friends as soon as possible)

But when we, the CREW Trust meet someone knew, explaining who we are can take five minutes – and that’s the short version.

Most people check out within the first two sentences – once they realize we’re going to say a lot of really long words, some of which may be new, like “aquifer recharge” and, well, honestly even what CREW stands for trips people up.

So let’s break it down into WHO exactly we are, and how that relates to CREW.


The acronym stands for the Corkscrew Regional Ecosytem Watershed, which is a 60,000-acrew watershed that spans Lee and Collier counties in Southwest Florida.

(we will get into the WHAT of the watershed in our next post)

So, CREW is the name for the land. (super short version of the definition)

The CREW Project

We sometimes refer to the entire 60,000-acres as the CREW Project, because CREW involves multiple agencies.

Those agencies include the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC), Conservation Collier, Conservation 20/20 and the CREW Land & Water Trust. Corkscrew Audubon Sanctuary is also within the borders of the CREW Project.

CREW Land & Water Trust (CREW Trust)

We, the CREW Land & Water Trust, are the non-profit agency attached to the CREW Project.

We help with funding and land acquisition and provide environmental education at the four trail systems within the CREW Project – the CREW Marsh Trails, Cypress Dome Trails, Bird Rookery Swamp and Flint Pen Strand.

The CREW Trust is often confused with CREW (as in, the names are used interchangeably) but we try to stress that we are part of the multi-agency project and NOT the land owners, land managers, biologists, law enforcement… we are helpers within the CREW Project.

We are ultimately tasked with helping each person we meet learn about WHAT CREW is (and what you can do at the trails), WHERE it is located (along with the trails), WHEN the project started and its timeline, WHY it’s important to protect the watershed, and HOW the public can help.

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